"This place"
Birth of a city


From time immemorial there was a settlement in what is now called "hill of Puy", formed by long-established indigenous people in this place are employing their language Navarre. The settlement called Lizarra (Lizarrara).

Reigning in the Kingdom of Pamplona Sancho Garcés I, in 914, we know of the existence of a fort on the hill of Puy to making strategic axis Deio Castle (Monjardín) fought against "raids" of Rahman III and his general Almanzor who attempted annihilation of the nascent Kingdom of Pamplona. The population around this fortification provides an organized, walled, are the servants of the king villains who pay a "pecha" (tribute) work dealing primarily vassalage, are royal manor.


A discovery that changes to Europe.

Descubrimiento sepulcro de Santiago

Around the year 834, reported in a diploma of Alfonso II, is the tomb of St. James by Bishop Teodomiro of Iria Flavia headquarters. In less than 100 years throughout Europe set off on pilgrimage to the tomb of St. James estimated between 250,000 and 500,000 pilgrims annually.

        As we want to emphasize in these pages is the socio-religious of that new society. It is a society eminently Theocentric (the center of life and man is only God). This group of people had the need to go on the road in search of a faraway place, where to get spiritual stability. We add the adventurous spirit of the age and traveler who contributed not a little to this phenomenon. They were restless people need to transcend their spirituality. So the traditional centers of pilgrimage, Jerusalem and Rome, Santiago de Compostela joins.

Peregrinos hacia SantiagoThis approach, this open and communicating Europe, this constellation of pilgrims succeeds in communicating to all the peoples of Europe regardless of social class. But come they bring their religion, their beliefs, their customs, their construction techniques (Romanesque), their culture, their art, their music, their language, their laws, their life experiences. Most important is that develop trade. Around these characteristics is necessary to create new cities and this need arises "this place".

Raoul Glaber (985-1047), a monk of Cluny, who lived the revival of Europe, wrote: "After the thousandth year and about three more, occurred in most of the world universe but especially in Gaul, renewed ecclesiastical basilicas for though many, decently wealthy, not need it, but every Christian community in improving his rival over the other. It was as if the world, shaking himself and stripped of old ages, was imposed white robe of churches ".

The existing peace after the decline Muslim feudalisation intense process, the agricultural revolution, the economic and population growth with the opening of trade routes produces a society with three leading groups: Monastic (church), feudal (nobles), urban (bourgeois) who pray (oratores), who fight (bellatores) and working (laboratores), corresponding to the Platonic idea of the transcendent, the romantic and the materialistic. Highlight on religious grounds the rise of the Church, instances of moral backbone, walking to a Theocentricism all with immense power to the clergy.
So are defined the main features of society in the year 1000. A booming economy and makes peace and awaken society in the interests of his geocentrism, built to God as the absolute center of their people, property, and ultimately, their souls. This is consistent dedication salvation.

Le Cluniac reform that introduces Ripoll Abbot Oliva in 1008 Sancho III is propagated by the great abbeys of his kingdom (San Juan de la Peña, Leyre, San Millán and Oña) restored the episcopal sees of Pamplona and Palencia. They begin to build new parishes, hospitals and hospices dependent on them, under the tutelage and economic use of the great abbeys and bishoprics in the new cities as Estella at hand.

The financial support of the kings out of the markets that are created with the founding of new cities. In the case of Estella's constant disputes between the crown and the most important monasteries already mentioned. If the diversion is the Camino de Santiago by passing by Estella detriment of its natural path for the term of which had begun work Zarapuz the monastery of San Juan de la Peña. Sancho Ramirez in 1090 was forced to give in return, in favor of San Juan de la Peña, a tenth of the royal revenues, all churches to be built in the future and a lot in the new population francs. Leyre and Irache are dispossessed and manage their privileges by granting preference to local procurement of trade (Irache) and income from the churches to be built in the new village of San Salvador del Arenal (Leyre).

The source of this caused conflicts remained active well into the sixteenth century.

As commonly say: "with these wicker baskets are manufactured these."

It is purpose of this page go into depth on sociopolitical issues that accompanied the founding of our city, so we simply to outline the situation of religious power.

        Some statistical data: Through the Books of seigniorage (1330, 1350), Book of rediezmo (1363) and Book of Fires (= Population) (1366) we have an exact idea of how society was at the time.



Inhabitants Reino
de Navarra 1363


Fuegos en Estella
y su Merindad

-In 1366, in Estella, were surveyed:

-829 total fires (clerics were not included (36)

-In 103 fires are consigned the office

- Approximately 20% were "non podientes". This figure rises to 70% in the Parish of San Miguel vs 10% in the borough of the Franks.

* Plague of 1348 and killing Jews.
** Plague of 1400 and 1420

City Fires % inside Merindad   Year Estella Merindad
Pamplona 1038 26,3   1330   7105
Tudela 1008 41   1350   4919*
Estella 865 17,2   1366 865 5377
Sangüesa 466 13,3   1427 431**  
        1553 881  

Monasteries and conventsESTELLA

  Nº Churches and clergy  
Monasterio de Agustinas de San Lorenzo 1131-1290 San Pedro de la Rúa 8
Convento de Santo Domingo 1258-1839
San Juan 9
Convento de San Francisco 1265-1839 San Miguel 5
Celde de Grandmont 1265-1307 San Pedro de Lizarra 6
Monasterio Nta. Sra. de Salas 1266-1402 San Salvador (Arenal) 1
Monasterio de Sant Benedict 1268- Santo Sepulcro 1
Monasterio de Santa Clara 1289-2011 Santa María Yus 2
Estudio General Cisterciense 1289-1335 Santa María del Puy 1
Convento de Agustinos 1295-1839 Hospital de San Pedro 1
Convento de Mercedarios 1296-1839 San Nicolás 2
Reclusos y reclusas 1295-1332    
Monasterio de Concepcionistas Recoletas 1731- 10 Iglesias 36

Parroquias, conventos y monasterios en estella


After the Middle Ages, with the annexation of Navarre to Castile, Estella fall in anonymity.

Today it remains a city mainly dedicated service and the catering trade.

Maintains weekly markets and annual fairs where merindad continues to bring their agricultural products and handicrafts.

With this brief summary we have a concise strokes of the situation.




Were consulted:

Historia Eclesiástica de Estella, Goñi Gaztambide

Estella, Itúrbide Díaz, Panorama nº 21